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Definition and fact articles in subject wikis often have a section called References. The References section lists external references, usually published books, articles, or other material, related to the topic of the article.

This article describes the nature of references.

Kinds of references

Textbook references

Further information: Subwiki:Textbook references

Textbook references are references to related material in textbooks. A textbook reference has the following features:

  • It contains a short clip containing the title and author of the book, the ISBN (10-digit and 13-digit) and possibly the publisher's name.
  • It provides a link to a separate page giving more details about the book. This page may, for instance, contain a review of the material in the book, as well as how the material in the book correlates with the subject wiki's content.
  • It indicates the page number and chapter/section/part of the book where the given material is referenced. In some cases, there may be multiple locations within the same book. For more information on book pages in subject wikis, refer Subwiki:Book pages.
  • It may contain a short description of the manner in which the book contains material relevant to the topic. For instance, for the definition of a term, it may indicate whether the book defines the term similarly, or in a slightly different way. For a theorem or fact, it may indicate whether the book states the fact in its main text, and whether the book supplies proof/explanation.

General book references

Further information: Subwiki:General book references

General book references are references to material in general books, that are not written as or intended as textbooks or reference books. Examples are books on science subjects written for popular audiences. The format for general book references is the same as that for textbook references; however, these are generally given in a separate subsection from the textbook references subsection.

Journal references

Further information: Subwiki:Journal references

These are references to articles published in academic or subject-related journals. Unlike textbook references, journal references usually do not pinpoint specific pages within the journal article related to the topic. The journal reference comprises a short clip with the name of the paper, the journal in which it was published, the names of the authors, and other academic information. There is a link to a page with more detailed information. The more detailed information may include an intra-subject classification code of the paper and links to gateway pages or general subject databases (such as Mathscinet for mathematical papers).