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  • ''Formalisms'' are formal expression systems, usually involving symbols, that may be used to define a term, state a fact * [[Groupprops:Normal subgroup#Formalisms]]: This gives several different formal expressions for the property of normality. It begins with a ''first-order d
    5 KB (678 words) - 20:41, 17 January 2009
  • .../Propositional_Equation_Reasoning_Systems Propositional Equation Reasoning Systems] .../Differential_Logic_and_Dynamic_Systems_2.0 Differential Logic and Dynamic Systems]
    5 KB (658 words) - 02:02, 31 October 2015
  • A '''logical graph''' is a graph-theoretic structure in one of the systems of graphical syntax that Charles Sanders Peirce developed for logic. ...developed several versions of a graphical formalism, or a graph-theoretic formal language, designed to be interpreted for logic.
    41 KB (5,845 words) - 14:38, 6 November 2015
  • ...[[logical graphs]], Peirce's law is represented by means of the following formal equivalence or logical equation. .../Propositional_Equation_Reasoning_Systems Propositional Equation Reasoning Systems]
    11 KB (1,526 words) - 16:14, 18 November 2015
  • ...o, its study from the perspectives of abstract algebra on the one hand and formal logic on the other. ...ociated with philosophical differences over the status in reality accorded formal objects. Among those who speak of numbers, functions, properties, relation
    25 KB (3,665 words) - 21:05, 16 November 2015
  • ...f the impressions that signs make on a representative interpreter. In its formal aspects, that impact or influence may be treated as just another sign, call .../Propositional_Equation_Reasoning_Systems Propositional Equation Reasoning Systems]
    20 KB (2,655 words) - 21:25, 16 November 2015
  • ...o ''C''. It is from this definition, together with a definition of “formal”, that I deduce mathematically the principles of logic. I also make ...he is invoking a more general concept of determination, what is called a ''formal'' or ''informational'' determination, as in saying “two points determ
    58 KB (8,251 words) - 21:35, 15 November 2015
  • ==Formal definition== ...A few bits of terminology are useful in describing the pictures, but the formal details are tedious reading, and may be familiar to many readers, so the fu
    22 KB (3,319 words) - 19:22, 6 November 2015
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    5 KB (572 words) - 04:18, 7 November 2015
  • ...nal logic'' (or ''sentential logic''). Propositional logic is a domain of formal subject matter that is, up to somorphism, constituted by the structural rel In general terms, a calculus is a formal system that consists of a set of syntactic expressions (''well-formed formu
    17 KB (2,301 words) - 16:02, 7 November 2015
  • In the formal sciences — mathematics, mathematical logic, statistics — and th ...entence is true. A truth predicate may have additional domains beyond the formal language domain, if that is what is required to determine a final truth val
    7 KB (806 words) - 21:16, 5 November 2015
  • ...les that govern the use of a ''differential logical calculus'', that is, a formal system with the expressive capacity to describe change and diversity in log .../Propositional_Equation_Reasoning_Systems Propositional Equation Reasoning Systems]
    6 KB (662 words) - 22:34, 5 November 2015
  • .../Propositional_Equation_Reasoning_Systems Propositional Equation Reasoning Systems] .../Differential_Logic_and_Dynamic_Systems_2.0 Differential Logic and Dynamic Systems]
    5 KB (599 words) - 20:22, 16 November 2015
  • '''Hypostatic abstraction''' is a formal operation that takes an element of information, as expressed in a propositi ...ion of hypostatic abstraction, insofar as it can be observed to operate on formal linguistic expressions, is that it converts an adjective or some part of a
    7 KB (915 words) - 18:58, 10 November 2015
  • ...t, even though all angles of approach must ultimately converge on the same formal subject matter. .../Propositional_Equation_Reasoning_Systems Propositional Equation Reasoning Systems]
    7 KB (919 words) - 22:54, 10 November 2015
  • In mathematics, a '''finitary relation''' is defined by one of the formal definitions given below. ==Formal definitions==
    20 KB (2,925 words) - 17:10, 14 November 2015
  • ...ond relations that have any fixed arity, in effect, to the general case of formal languages as generalized relations. .../Propositional_Equation_Reasoning_Systems Propositional Equation Reasoning Systems]
    65 KB (6,802 words) - 18:18, 14 November 2015
  • .../Propositional_Equation_Reasoning_Systems Propositional Equation Reasoning Systems] .../Differential_Logic_and_Dynamic_Systems_2.0 Differential Logic and Dynamic Systems]
    5 KB (621 words) - 19:24, 14 November 2015
  • .../Propositional_Equation_Reasoning_Systems Propositional Equation Reasoning Systems] .../Differential_Logic_and_Dynamic_Systems_2.0 Differential Logic and Dynamic Systems]
    29 KB (4,035 words) - 03:36, 15 November 2015
  • .../Propositional_Equation_Reasoning_Systems Propositional Equation Reasoning Systems] .../Differential_Logic_and_Dynamic_Systems_2.0 Differential Logic and Dynamic Systems]
    16 KB (2,190 words) - 18:31, 7 November 2015
  • .../Propositional_Equation_Reasoning_Systems Propositional Equation Reasoning Systems] .../Differential_Logic_and_Dynamic_Systems_2.0 Differential Logic and Dynamic Systems]
    6 KB (702 words) - 19:14, 7 November 2015
  • ...he sixteen functions in one of several notations that are commonly used in formal logic. .../Propositional_Equation_Reasoning_Systems Propositional Equation Reasoning Systems]
    12 KB (1,631 words) - 03:08, 9 November 2015
  • One other thing needs to be noticed here, the formal [[duality]] between this expansion phase of inquiry and the argument from [ .../Propositional_Equation_Reasoning_Systems Propositional Equation Reasoning Systems]
    58 KB (7,676 words) - 22:36, 15 November 2015
  • ...e anything from an informal theory, based on implicit or tacit ideas, to a formal theory, constructed from explicit axioms and definitions and developed by m ...standard in modern times under the heading of ''semantics'', especially ''formal semantics'' and ''model theory''. Another association of longstanding inte
    37 KB (5,460 words) - 14:50, 17 November 2015
  • ...e the potential confusion is to begin with a focus on the various types of formal objects that are being discussed, of which there are only a few, taking up The main formal object under discussion is a logical operation on two logical values, typic
    16 KB (2,147 words) - 20:20, 4 November 2015
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    6 KB (728 words) - 01:46, 31 October 2015
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    5 KB (618 words) - 04:12, 7 November 2015
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